Adult learners are problem-centered in their learning orientation. They are motivated to learn to the extent that learning will help them perform tasks or deal with real-life problems. Problem solving yields new learning as learners are able to combine prior knowledge of principles, procedures, declarative knowledge, and cognitive strategies. Learning strategies are generated by the learners (constructivism) and checked for their success by the instructor. The instructor may offer learning strategies such as analogies and mental imagery to assist instruction.
Learners should be encouraged to solve problems of similar characteristics outside of the classroom to assure transfer of the problem-solving skill. Assessment should be the ability of the learners to demonstrate their skill in solving problems similar to those that were used in the classroom.