Because adult learners bring their prior knowledge and experiences into a new learning situation, learners’ interest is aroused by comparing their previous learning experiences to the anticipated new experience. A mnemonic device may be used as a learning strategy to aid learners in recalling the steps of the procedure (declarative learning). Practice involves recalling and performing the steps of the procedure, and feedback should be given on whether the procedure was completed with acceptable precision and efficiency. Summary, remotivation, and transfer should include a review of the applicability of the procedure, and assessment should include a demonstration by the learners of their ability to correctly apply the procedure.
Instructional strategies certainly have their advantages in assisting learners in the acquisition of knowledge and skills. Instructional designers should carefully perform a task analysis, analyze learners, and the analyze the context when designing instruction to make a determination to facilitate the use of strategies with more direct prompting of learning strategies or more direct and complete instruction. If inhibitors to use of strategies are present (learners have low skill in strategy use, learners are not motivated, learners do not recognize the applicability of the strategy, learners lack awareness of their own cognitive capabilities, learners are unaware of the learning task, learners have no prior content knowledge, etc.) the instructional designer may need to develop a technique to improve them or choose strategies with more direct prompting or instruction that is more direct. A continuing goal of the instructional designer is to apply the different types of instructional strategies to best achieve the different types of learning.