Shirley J. Caruso
The capacity to perform an act, either innate or as the result of learning and practice.
Arrangement whereby students are assigned to groups on the basis of aptitude testing.
Combining adult learning theory and whole brain learning theory in the learning environment to achieve a faster learning rate.
The degree of freedom from error or the degree of conformity to a standard.
A measurement of what a person knows or can do after training.
The specific behavior the learner is to exhibit after training.
A case study which has been programmed. Learners receive enough information to take them to their first decision point. The decision then takes them to the next frame, which explains the consequence of their decision. This process is continued until the maze has been completed.
This is a continuous process of learning and reflection with the intention of getting something done. It does not use project work, job rotation, or any form of a simulation such as case studies or business games (see active learning). Learning is centered around the need to find a solution to a real problem. Most action learning programs take from four to nine months to complete. Learning is voluntary and learner driven, while individual development is as important as finding the solution to the problem.
A word that conveys action/behaviors and reflects the type of performance that is to occur (i.e., place, cut, drive, open, hold). Action verbs reflect behaviors that are measurable, observable, verifiable, and reliable.
A process of learning new ideas, skills and attitudes through what we do at work or in other behavioral situations. It is about learning from doing, performing, and taking action. The action can be either mental (e.g. reflection) or physical (e.g. case study). It uses such devices as games, simulations, introspection, role playing, etc.
The step of learner activity based on the enabling objective. In achieving the activity the learner is carried through the teaching points and the teaching steps.
Information about the current skills, knowledge, perspectives and environment of individuals in an organization. Specifics about what people now do.
Adaptive Branching (adjustive device)
Any of several techniques used in scheduling to accommodate individual differences. It may permit the student to bypass material they already know or may provide them with additional instruction as needed.
A type of instructional device that applies programming principles to existing course materials, texts, manuals, etc. Learners are directed to specific areas within these materials that support course objectives; then directed to respond and given confirmation until they have progressed through the material and have accomplished predetermined objectives.
A classification of objectives that focus on the development of attitudes, beliefs, and values. Affective learning is about gaining new perceptions (e.g., self-confidence, responsibility, respect, dependability, and personal relations).
The taxonomy of categories arranged in ascending order of difficulty are:
Receiving: Aware of, passively attending to certain stimuli.
Responding: Complies to given expectations by reacting to stimuli.
Valuing: Displays behavior consistent with single belief or attitude in situations where
not forced to obey.
Organizing: Committed to a set of values as displayed by behavior.
Characterizing: Total behavior consistent with internalized values.
First of the Instructional System Design phases. The purpose of this phase is to determine what the job holder must know or do on the job and to determine training needs. Also see front-end analysis.
From the Greek words “anere”, for adult and “agogus”, the art and science of helping students learn. Widely used by adult educators to describe the theory of adult learning. The term offers an alternative to pedagogy. The andragogic model asks that five issues be considered and addressed in formal learning:
- Letting learners know why something is important to learn – The need to know.
- Showing learners how to direct themselves through information – The need to be self directing.
- Relating the topic to the learner’s experiences – Greater volume and quality of experience.
- People will not learn until ready and motivated to learn – Readiness to learn.
- A need to have a life centered, task centered, or problem centered orientation – Often this requires helping them overcome inhibitions, behaviors, and beliefs about learning.
The ability of an individual to acquire a new skill or show the potential for acquiring a skill when given the opportunity and proper training.
Any learning event that is delivered after the original live event. Also used to indicate a learning event where the interaction is delayed over time, such as a correspondence course.
Essentially a measurement process of the learning that has either taken place or can take place. Usually measured against stated learning outcomes:
- Predictive assessment attempts to measure what the learner might achieve given suitable training.
- Attainment assessment attempts to measure what the learner knows or can do, and is usually related to the syllabus of a course the learner has followed.
A persisting feeling or emotion of a person that influences choice of action and response to stimulus. Defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, situation). They encompass, or are closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon our experiences. Training that produces tangible results starts by changing behavior…which ultimately changes attitudes. Training often uses the term attitude to identify the psychological term “affective domain.”
A structured approach to developing all elements of a unit of instruction.
Software application used to produce media-based learning content
Information carrying capacity of a communication channel.
1) Valid and reliable information about the intended learner population used to
ascertain differences between learners’ performances before and after instruction.
2) A set of measurements (metrics) that seek to establish the current starting level
of a performance. These measurements are usually established before
implementing improvement activities.
Any activity (either covert or overt) the learner will be expected to exhibit after training. The activity should be observable and measurable. It is the primary component of an objective.
Belief that learning results in a change in the learner’s behavior. The focus of behaviorists is on the outputs of the learning process. The study of learning only through the examination and analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events, in contrast with subjective mental states.
The change in the knowledge, skills, or attitude of an individual which occurs as the result of a planned set and schedule of reinforcements.
Block of Instruction
A group of related instructional units or modules covering a major subject area.
An individual’s preference for using one’s cognitive abilities. There are two styles of thinking – right brain (intuitive, spontaneous, qualitative) and left brain (factual, analytical and quantitative).
An instructional technique, usually in the form of programmed text, in which the learner’s next step of instruction is determined by her response to a previous step. Two or more directions in a program path can go from a decision point.
Bricks and Mortar Schools
A traditional school or class building. A Brick and Click school would be a combination of a traditional and online (click) school.
Method of transferring learning content to many learners simultaneously.
In programmed instruction, a technique that permits a student to skip certain portions of the material because of prior knowledge.
A printed description of a problem situation that contains enough detail to enable the learners to recommend a solution. The learners encounter a real-life situation under the guidance of an instructor or computer in order to achieve an instructional objective. Control of the discussion comes through by the amount of the detail provided.
What gets in the way of individual and organizational performance. There are four kinds of causes: absence of skills and knowledge or information, weak motivation, improper environment, and flawed incentives.
Program and process where a learner completes prescribed training and passes an assessment with a minimum acceptable score. To increase validity and assure authentication, the certification process should be proctored by an independent agent.
An instructional technique that transforms a learned response into a stimulus for the next desired response.
Classroom learning or conventional learning as compared to e-learning (electronic).
A process of organizing many tasks into groups for the purpose of deciding upon the optimal instructional setting mix for that group of tasks. Also pertains to sequencing groups of objectives within a course of instruction.
A person who instructs, demonstrates, directs, and prompts learners. Generally concerned with methods rather than concepts. There are four coaching roles/styles:
- hands-on – acting as an instructor for inexperienced learners.
- hands-off – developing high performance in experienced learners.
- supporter – helping learners use a flexible learning package.
- qualifier – helping a learner develop a specific requirement for a competence-based or professional qualification.
From the Latin cogito; “I think”. The mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning. Cognitive also refers to attempts to identify a perspective or theory in contrast to emphasizing observable behavior.
Involves mental processes. The Taxonomy of categories arranged in ascending order of difficulty are:
- Knowledge: Recognition and recall of information.
- Comprehension: Interprets, translates or summarizes given information.
- Application: Uses information in a situation different from original learning context.
- Analysis: Separates wholes into parts until relationships are clear.
- Synthesis: Combines elements to form new entity from the original one.
- Evaluation: Involves acts of decision making based on criteria or rationale.
The intentional and purposeful processing of lesson content. Engagement, in effect, requires strategies that promote manipulation rather than memorization, as the means through which learners acquire both lesson knowledge and deeper conceptual insight. Engagement can be elevated through a variety of activities such as inducing cognitive dissonance, posing argumentative questions requiring the development of a supportable position, and causing learners to generate a prediction and rationale during a lesson.
Believe that learning occurs when learners are able to add new concepts and ideas to their cognitive structure by recognizing a relationship between something they already know and what they are learning. The focus of cognitivists is on the inputs of the learning process. Cognitive theorists emphasize internal processes and knowledge representations which are impossible to observe directly, but which are inferred.
A more radical departure from “cooperative learning”. It involves learners working together in small groups to develop their own answer through interaction and reaching consensus, not necessarily a known answer. Monitoring the groups or correcting “wrong” impressions is not the role of the trainer since there is no authority on what the answer should be.
A task that requires more than one individual to complete with each individual performing a discreet part of the collective task.
Common Learning Objective
A learning objective written for a task element (supporting skill or knowledge) that is common to two or more tasks.
(1) Areas of personal capability that enable people to perform successfully in their jobs by completing task effectively. A competency can be knowledge, attitudes, skills, values, or personal values. Competency can be acquired through talent, experience, or training. (2) Competency comprises the specification of knowledge and skill and the application of that knowledge and skill to the standard of performance required in employment.
Instruction that is organized around a set of learning objectives based upon the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a set of skills called competencies. Evaluation of student success is based on competent performance of the skills. Normative measurement is specifically excluded from competency-based instruction.
A test component requiring the completion of a statement, phrase, or concept.
Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
The use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction in which the system allows for remediation based on answers but not for a change in the underlying program structure.
Computer-Based Training (CBT)
Interactive instructional experience between a computer and a learner in which the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the learner responds, resulting in progress toward increased skills or knowledge. Has a more complicated branching program of mediation and answering than CAI. Now an all-encompassing term used to describe any computer-delivered training including CD-ROM and the World Wide Web. Some people still use the term CBT to refer only to old-time text-only training.
Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)
The use of computers and software to manage the instructional process. Functions of CMI can include a management administration system designed to track student performance over a period of time, provide information concerning performance trends, record individual and group performance data, schedule training, and provide support for other training management functions.
A mental picture of a group of things that have common characteristics. A generalization is a person�s idea of the relationships between two or more concepts. Concepts represent a group of solid objects, such as an airplane or book; or abstract ideas such as leadership and honesty. A concept is an idea about a group of things. A concept involves thinking about what it is that makes those things belong to that one group.
Concept Map (learning map)
The arrangement of major concepts from a text or lecture into a visual arrangement. Lines are drawn between associated concepts, and relationships between the connected concepts are named. These concept maps reveal the structural pattern in the material and provide the big picture.
The component of an objective that describes the situation, environment, or limitations in which the learner must exhibit the specified behavior.
Branching which occurs when a specified condition or set of conditions is satisfied.
A response that has been learned through employing a specific stimulus.
Giving each learner knowledge of the results of each exercise throughout the instructional process. This reinforces or rewards the learner during the entire learning situation.
Any element or factor that prevents a person from reaching a higher lever of performance with respect to her goal.
An answer requiring recall or completion as opposed to recognition (e.g., drawing a diagram, filling in a form, and labeling the parts of a piece of equipment).
School of human learning which believes in the need to identify current learning prior to constructing new meaning. Knowledge is seen as a mental construct that is built on and added to. Learners create an image of what the world is like and how it operates and they adapt and transform their understanding of new experiences in light of what they already ‘know’. This theory of learning has consequences for teaching and learning strategies. It means that trainers must recognize how a learner already sees the world, and how that learner believes it to operate. New information presented to the learner will be modified by what the learner already knows and believes. By starting ‘where the learner is at�, that is, engaging prior knowledge with present learning, the trainer assists the students to build on her understanding of the world and its workings.
The almost simultaneous occurrence of stimulus and response in psychomotor skill learning.
A programming principle that implies self-pacing within an instructional system. The information and learner activity are developed so that the learners can progress toward the criterion objectives according to their own learning ability.
Involves the more conventional notion of cooperation, in that learners work in small groups on an assigned project or problem under the guidance of the trainer who monitors the groups, making sure the learners are staying on task and are coming
up with the correct answers (if there is a right or a best answer). Also see collaborative learning.
The relationship between two sets of data, that when one changes, the other is likely to make a corresponding change. If the changes are in the same direction, then there is a positive correlation. If it is in the opposite direction, then it is a negative correlation.
A means of assisting and developing students and subordinates. A leader/instructor counsels subordinates: to praise and reward good performance, to develop teamwork, to inform students on how well or how poorly they are performing, to assist students to reach required standards, to cause students to set personal and professional goals, and to help students resolve personal problems.
A complete integrated series of lessons which are identified by a common title and/or number.
Course Management Plan
A document that includes the course description and the administrative directions for managing a course. Sometimes called a training management plan.
A chart that depicts the designed sequence for events of a course.
A full length course conducted in a target environment (facilities, instructors and students) using the curriculum and supporting training material prepared for that course. It has as its purpose the “shaking down” or “validating” of the curriculum and materials in a classroom situation to determine their effectiveness in attaining the approved learning objectives or training goals. Also called ‘pilot course’.
The media, either text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the instructional content of the course.
Mental activity usually referred to as thinking. Behavior that is not directly observable but may be inferred from overt behavior that is observable.
The standard by which something is measured. In training, the task or learning objective standard is the measure of student performance. In test validation, it is the standard against which test instruments are correlated to indicate the accuracy with which they predict human performance in some specific area. In evaluation it is the measure used to determine the adequacy of a product, process, or behavior.
Criterion Referenced Instruction
Testing of the objectives as a learner progresses through the course of instruction. Learners pass or fail depending upon their attainment of the objectives and NOT in accordance with their rank or standing among peers.
Critical Incident Technique
A methodology of task analysis which determines the tasks to be included in instruction. Experts identify the critical job incidents and their products. Incidents are edited for redundancy, grouped into similar tasks, and then classified as positive or negative incidents. The incidents are summarized and then validated by the experts for completeness. This is a useful means for obtaining a list of relevant, real-world tasks to be included in instruction.
Providing training in several different areas or functions. This provides backup workers when the primary worker is unavailable.
A prompt that signals performance is needed. An initiating cue is a signal to begin performing a task or task performance step. An internal cue is a signal to go from one element of a task to another. A terminating cue indicates task completion.
The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment. The courses are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier. In schools, a curriculum spans several grades, for example, the math curriculum. In business, it can run for days, weeks, months, or years. Learners enter it at various points depending on their job experience and the needs of the business.
Factual (verifiable information) information about a subject matter.
An instructional design where rules are presented followed by examples. The emphasis is on forming conclusions.
Failure to meet a set performance standard.
Any method of transferring offerings to learners. Variants are instructor-led training, web-based distance learning, online laboratory, CD-ROM, and books.
A learning experience in which students observe and then participate in a sequence of events designed to teach a procedure, a technique, or an operation, frequently combining oral explanation with the operation or handling of systems, equipment, or materials.
The phase in the instructional system design process where learning objectives, tests, and the required skills and knowledge for a task are constructed and sequenced.
Any training delivered by computer at one’s desk.
The actual learning of knowledge, skills, and attitude.
The phase in the instructional system design process where instructional materials are developed and validated.
Instructional design in which the student is presented information and asked to respond to questions.
Test response feedback specific to the multiple choice answer selected by the student.
One of several models available for use in selecting tasks for training. Using this model, tasks are identifies as critical based on the difficulty, importance, and frequency of job task performance.
Learning without a teacher; usually in a controlled (i.e. pre-designed) set-up, and under supervision.
The ability to choose between two closely related responses to a specific stimulus.
(1) The use of any media for self-study. (2) A telecommunications-based instructional system evolved from the open learning movement used to overcome geographical “place-based” learning. (3) In its most common historical form, this refers to a broadcast of a lecture to distant locations, usually through video presentations.
Students take courses from a variety of sources (and delivery modes) to customize a program of study. Often is used synonymously with online learning.
Drill and Practice
Ungraded verifications of comprehension of enabling objectives (e.g., questions, exercises, and problems). A method of instruction characterized by systematic repetition of concepts, examples, and practice problems. An ungraded practice quiz.
The development of knowledge, skills, and attitude not necessarily related to one�s job.
A complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization, for analyzing problems, and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems, involved in all aspects of human learning.
A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output expected. Efficiency measures how well someone is performing relative to expectations.
Covers a wide set of applications and processes such as web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet, audio and videotape, satellite, and CD-ROM. However, many organizations only consider it as a network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge.
Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS)
Applications designed to run simultaneously with other applications or embedded within other applications that provide support for the user in accomplishing specific tasks. An EPSS may provide needed information, present job aids, and deliver just-in-time, context-sensitive training on demand. A Web-based performance support system (WBPSS) is an EPSS which uses Web technology to deliver support in an enterprise environment.
Components of a task or the smallest meaningful activity that describes what employees in an industry are expected to be able to do. Elements combine to form a task, tasks combine to form a duty, and duties combine to from a job. Elements depend on other elements and are always components of a procedure. Also, the sub-division of a unit of competence. The element encapsulates:
Skills – the performance of relevant tasks.
Management – the skills required to manage a group of tasks to achieve the overall job
Contingency management skills – i.e. responding to breakdowns in routines and
Job/role environment – i.e. responding to general aspects of the work role and
environment, such as natural constraints and working relationships.
Enabling Learning Objective (ELO)
A statement in behavioral terms of what is expected of the student in demonstrating mastery at the knowledge and skill level necessary for achievement of a Terminal Learning Objective (TLO) or another ELO.
Entry Level Skills
Specific competencies or skills a learner must have mastered before entering a given instructional activity.
A branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. The study of how we know what we know.
The process of gathering information in order to make good decisions. It is broader than testing, and includes both subjective (opinion) input and objective (fact) input. Evaluation can take many forms including memorization tests, portfolio assessment, and self-reflection. There are at least six major reasons for evaluating training, each requiring a different type of evaluation:
- Improve the instruction (formative evaluation)
- Promote individual growth and self-evaluation (evaluation by both trainer and learner)
- Assess the degree of demonstrated achievement (summative evaluation attained by
- the teacher)
- Diagnose future learning needs (of both trainer and learner)
- Enhance one’s sense of merit or worth (learner)
- Identify or clarify desired behaviors (trainer).
Evaluation Hierarchy (four levels of evaluation model)
Donald Kirkpatrick identified the evaluation model most widely recognized today in corporate training organizations. The Kirkpatrick Model addresses the four fundamental behavior changes that occur as a result of training.
- Level one is how participants feel about training (reaction). This level is often measured with attitude questionnaires.
- Level two determines if people memorized the material (learning). This is often accomplished with pre-testing and post-testing.
- Level three answers the question, “Do people use the information on the job?” This level addresses transference of new skills to the jobs (behavior change). This is often accomplished by observation.
- Level four measures the training effectiveness, “What result has the training achieved?” This broad category is concerned with the impact of the program on the wider community (results).
A test or other measuring device used to determine achievement (go and no-go) or the relative standing of an individual or group or a test objective (i.e., attitude, behavior, performance objective, and other attributes). Evaluation instruments include tests, rating forms, inventories, and standard interviews.
The instructional system design phase that determines the value or worth of the instructional program. This phase is actually
conducted during and between all the other phases.
A method for developing training programs. It includes both deterministic and incremental systems, in contrast to the systems approach, which is entirely deterministic. This means that in an evolutionary approach, tentative or short term goals may be specified. This approach is particularly appropriate for situations where there is limited past experience from which to draw guidance.
A learning activity having a behavioral based hierarchy that allows the student to experience and practice job related tasks and functions during a training session.
Students and teachers are in the same location at the same time.
A person who makes it easier for learners to learn by attempting to discover what a learner is interested in knowing, and then determines the best way to make that information available to the learner by providing the knowledge, systems, or materials which enable the learner to perform a task more effectively. This is done by listening, asking questions, providing ideas, suggesting alternatives, and identifying possible resources.
Providing learners with information about the nature of an action and its result in relation to some criterion of acceptability. It provides the flow of information back to the learner so that actual performance can be compared with planned performance. Feedback can be positive, negative, or neutral. Feedback is almost always considered external while reinforcement can be external or intrinsic (i.e., generated by the individual).
The “front end” phase of the ISD or SAT process in which the job is analyzed, tasks are selected for training, task performance measures are constructed, existing courses are reviewed, and the instructional setting tentatively determined.
Organizing instruction such that tasks that relate to the same procedures or equipment are presented together.
Group-Paced Instruction (lockstep)
Students progress as a group at a rate equal to that of the slowest student. There is no fixed minimum time for a unit.
Guided Discussion Method
A learning experience in which students participate in an instructor-controlled, interactive process of sharing information and experiences related to achieving an instructional objective.
A document prepared specifically to provide guidance information. Handbooks are used for the presentation of general information, procedural and technical use data, or design information related to commodities, processes, practices, and services.
Supporting information to be used by the learner as reference material in a training program.
Student practice on actual equipment, simulators, or training aids.
Human Performance Improvement (HPI)
A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance improvement gaps, planning for future improvements in human performance, designing and developing cost-effective and ethically-justifiable interventions to close performance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial and nonfinancial results.
Human Resource Development (HRD)
An organized learning experience, conducted in a definite time period, to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth.
Hybrid Task Analysis Method
Involves both a quantitative analysis and consensus building. Using job task documents, a list of tasks is compiled by an analyst. Through an iterative process involving consensus building, the validity of the task list is assessed by subject matter experts, supervisors and job incumbents. Through discussions, each task’s complexity, importance and frequency are numerically rated by members of the consensus group. Once the tasks are identified, the group identifies and validates the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform each task.
The Instructional System Design where instruction is delivered to the learners.
An instructional design where examples are presented and then followed by the rule.
The delivery of information to enable learning. The process by which knowledge and skills are transferred to students. Instruction applies to both training and education.
The procedures applied to an instructional goal in order to identify the relevant skills and their subordinate skills and information required for a learner to achieve the goal.
The philosophy, methodology, and approach used to deliver information. Some courseware aspects include question strategy, level of interaction, reinforcement, and branching complexity.
Clear statements of behavior that learners are to demonstrate as a result of instruction.
A component of the instructional strategy defining a particular means for accomplishing the objective. For example a traditional instructor led instructional strategy may be accomplished using the lecture method, a Socratic lecture technique, and a defined step-by-step questioning procedure. Also called ‘method of instruction’.
A self-contained instructional unit that includes one or more learning objectives, appropriate learning materials and methods, and associated criterion-reference measures.
The approach used to present information in a manner that achieves learning. Approaches include tutorial, gaming, simulation, etc. Aspects of instructional strategies include the order of presentation, level of interaction, feedback, remediation, testing strategies, and the medium used to present the information.
Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
A formal process for designing training, be it computer-based or traditional instructor-led training. The ISD process includes analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Also known as System Approach to Training (SAT).
The use of technology (computers, compact disc, interactive media, modem, satellite, teleconferencing, etc.) to support learning.
An individual who gives knowledge or information to learners in a systematic manner by presenting information, directing structured leaning experiences, and managing group discussions and activities.
An umbrella term that includes both computer-based and multimedia training.
Delivery of educational content via a Web browser over the internet or intranet. It provides links to learning resources outside of the course, such as references, email, bulletin boards, and discussion groups.
A device designed for use on the job and providing guidance on the performance of a specific task or skill. May be printed or on-line. Used in situations where it is not feasible or worthwhile to commit the procedure to memory before on-the-job-activity. Often these are paper-based and posted on the wall in plain sight or in a small reference notebook. They can also be, decals, manuals, cards, etc.
Breaking down the complexity of a person’s job into logical parts such as duties and tasks. It identifies and organizes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to perform the job correctly. This is accomplished by gathering task activities and requirements by observation, interviews, or other recording systems.
A formal statement of duties, qualifications, and responsibilities associated with a job.
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs. It is associated with the design of jobs to reduce employee dissatisfaction.
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs and an increase in the control over those tasks. It is associated with the design of jobs and is an extension of job enlargement.
Just-in-Time Training (JITT):
A method of providing training when it is needed. Its advantages are:
- Eliminates the need for refresher training due to subject knowledge loss experienced if training precedes, over an extended period of time (prevents decay if the learner cannot use the material upon returning to the job).
- Prevents training being wasted on people who leave the job before the training they received is used on the job.
- Allows the learners to receive training when they need it…not weeks or months later.
The information we acquire, how it is organized into what we already know, and an understanding of how and why it is used. (three types of knowledge according to Blanchard and Thacker are: declarative, procedural, and strategic).
Capturing, organizing, and storing knowledge and experiences of individual workers and groups within an organization and making it available to others in the organization. The information is stored in a special database called a knowledge base and is used to enhance organizational performance. Two of the most common ways are:
- Documenting individual’s knowledge and disseminating through manuals or a database.
- Using such tools as groupware, email, and the internet that facilitates communication.
Knowledge Mapping (mind maps)
A learning method similar to outlining that consists of drawing out circles and connecting them with lines while writing words in the circles and on the lines.
Learner Centered Instruction
An instructional process in which the content is determined by the student’s needs, the instructional materials are geared to the student’s abilities, and the instructional design makes the students active participants.
The traits, such as reading level, possessed by learners that could affect their ability to learn. These characteristics are included in the target population description.
A relatively permanent change in cognition, resulting from experience and directly influencing behavior.
The analysis of each task or subject area to determine what the learner must do upon completion of training, how well the learner must be able to do it, and what skills and knowledge must be taught in order to meet the end-of-training requirement.
A curve reflecting the rate of improvement in performing a new task as a learner practices and uses her newly acquired skills.
A graphic display of the relationships among learning objectives in which some learning objectives must be mastered before others can be learned.
Learning Management System (LMS)
Infrastructure platform through which learning content is delivered and managed. A combination of software tools perform a variety of functions related to online and offline training administration and performance management.
Learning Package (courseware)
The media, either text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the instructional content of the course.
A statement of what the learners will be expected to do when they have completed a specified course of instruction. It prescribes the conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performance for the training setting. An Enabling Learning Objective measures an element of the Terminal Learning Objective. Sometimes referred to as performance, instructional, or behavioral objectives.
Continually learning new KSA’s (knowledge, skills, abilities or attitudes) and applying them to improve product or service quality.
Any Website that offers learners or organizations consolidated access to learning and training resources from multiple sources.
The methods that students use to learn. This ranges from techniques for improved memory to better studying or test taking strategies. For example, one learning strategy program is SQ3R which suggests 5 steps:
- Survey the material to be learned
- Develop questions about the material
- Read the material
- Recall the key ideas
- Review the material
A composite of the cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and responds to the learning environment. Included in this definition are perceptual modalities, information processing styles, and personality patterns.
Learning Style Inventory
Kolb & Fry’s Learning Style Inventory which theorizes that people develop preferences for different learning styles in the same way that they develop any other sort of style, i.e. – management, leadership, negotiating etc. The four predominant styles are:
- Active experimentation (simulations, case study, homework). If this if the preferred style of the learner then she is an Activist – what’s new? I’m game for anything.
- Reflective observation (logs, journals, brainstorming). If this if the preferred style of the learner then he is a Reflector – I’d like time to think about this.
- Abstract conceptualization (lecture, papers, analogies). If this if the preferred style of the learner then she is a Theorist – How does this relate to that?
- Concrete experience (laboratories, field work, observations). If this if the preferred style of the learner then he is a Pragmatist – How can I apply this in practice?
Learning Style Preferences (VAK)
Preferred method of learning for an individual:
- Visual learners – gain knowledge best by seeing or reading what you’re trying to teach.
- Auditory learners – gain knowledge best by listening.
- Kinesthetic learners – gain knowledge best by touching, moving, and doing.
Learning Taxonomy (Bloom’s Hierarchy):
A taxonomic classification of cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviors for the purposes of test design invented by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues. Learning is broken down into three domains:
- affective: The manner in which we deal with things emotionally – our feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes.
- cognitive: The recall or recognition of specific facts, procedures, concepts, and universals that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
- psychomotor: Involves physical movement, coordination, and use of motor skill areas:
A segment of instruction that contains a learning objective and information to be imparted to the student.
A written guide for trainers plans in order to achieve the intended learning outcomes. It provides specific definition and direction on learning objectives, equipment, instructional media material requirements, and conduct of the training.
Levels of Competence
There are four levels of competence:
- Unconscious incompetence: the learner is unaware that he cannot do a task
- Conscious incompetence: the learner is aware of the task, but cannot do it
- Conscious competence: the learner is able to think through a task step-by-step and do it
- Unconscious competence: the learner can do the task without thinking about intermediate steps
A way of generating a quantitative value (numerical) to a qualitative questionnaire (e.g. poor, fair, good, very good, excellent). Sometimes used on end of course evaluation. (smile sheets) For an ascending five point scale incremental values are assigned to each category and a mean figure for all the responses is calculated. (via the sum of the products of the categories’ assigned value times the number of respondents for that category, divided by the total number of respondents) Example: Total number of respondents=25, assigned values are; poor=1, fair=2, good=3, very good=4, excellent=5; respondents selecting following categories are; good=9, very good=10, excellent=6. The quantitative mean = ((9*3)+(10*4)+(6*5))/25=3.9
The concept of ‘continuous personal development’ through student centered (self-actualized) learning. Lifelong learners demonstrate:
- the ability to accept themselves as well as others
- spontaneous but ethical behavior
- a strong focus upon problems outside themselves
- the ability to capitalize on the qualities of detachment and solitude
- independent stability in the face of hard knocks
- freshness of appreciation
- deep feelings of identification, sympathy, and affection for humankind
- profound interpersonal relationships
- a democratic character structure
- strong ethics with definite moral standards
- philosophical, unhostile sense of humor
- a special kind of creativeness
- the ability to function independently as a part of the growing tip of humanity
A programming method characterized by short steps of instruction, constructed response, and a maximum amount of overt activity. The least desirable programming technique. (see branching)
Meeting all of the specified minimum requirements for a specific performance.
A tool used to provide feedback to the learner and the trainer to determine where the learner is in relation to the ultimate goal or objective.
The means by which material is presented to learners; e.g. film, slides, computers, etc.
A wise and trusted counselor.
Technique invented by Tony Buzan following research on note taking procedures which proved that if a learner writes down own key words then retention was maximized.
The way a teacher/learning activity is controlled; e.g. lecture, demonstration, performance, lockstep, individual paced, etc.
(1) A person that serves as a target subject for a learner to emulate. (2) A representation of a process or system that show the most important variables in the system in such a way that analysis of the model leads to insights into the system.
The process by which courses are divided into separate elements – modules – which are self contained.
A stand-alone instructional unit that is designed to satisfy one or more learning objectives. A separate component complete within itself that can be taught, measured, and evaluated for a change or bypassed as a whole; one that is interchangeable with others, used for assembly into units of differing size, complexity, or function. A module consists of one or more lessons. Also called ‘annex’ or ‘subcourse’.
An instructional system that incorporates all or various instructional methods and media. It describes any application that uses multiple media (graphics, text, animation, audio, video), but multimedia is primarily thought of as any application that uses high-bandwidth media (audio and video) and is most often delivered on CD-ROM.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Known formally as Jung’s theory of personality type, first developed by Carl Jung in the early 1920’s and more recently resurrected and made into a practical instrument by Myers and Briggs. It is a particular test vehicle for personality typing.
A method used to determine training needs by reviewing work tasks, identifying performance factors and objectives, and defining training objectives and recommendations.
Problem identification process that looks at the difference between “what is” and “what should be” for a particular situation. A systematic study that incorporates data and opinions from varied sources in order to create, install and evaluate educational and informational products and services. The effort commences as a result of a “hand-off” from performance analysis. Also known as training needs assessment, needs analysis, front end analysis, task and subject matter analysis.
Formal training for learning the skills and knowledge to perform a job that takes place in the actual work environment.
Leading people on a different path than what they are accustomed to. Associated with business planning. There are three main driving forces – people, technology, and information.
Behavior that is observable and measurable, as opposed to a convert response, which is not publicly observable.
A process that refers to all the participation of all the functional areas of the organization in the training design activity. The intent is to enhance the design with the input of all the key stakeholders. Such a process should ensure that the final outcome of the design meets the needs of the stakeholders.
Literally means the art and science of educating children, pedagogy is often used as a synonym for teaching. Pedagogy embodies teacher-focused education.
The accomplishment of a task in accordance with a set standard of completeness and accuracy.
It is the process by which professionals partner with clients to identify and respond to opportunities and problems, and through study of individuals and the organization, to determine an appropriate cross-functional solution system. Performance analysis is a systematic and systemic approach to engaging with the client. It is the process by which we determine when and how to use education and information resources.
Instruction which develops learner performance proficiency via task-based learning objectives written with an action verb. Learners prove competency by actual performance of the objectives to the established standards.
The breakdown of a learning objective into elements that must be correctly performed to determine whether each learner satisfactorily meets the performance standards described in the learning objective.
Part of a learning objective that describes the observable learner behavior (or the product of that behavior) that is acceptable as proof that learning has occurred.
The inability of a unit or individual to perform the required tasks to the established standard.
Causes of performance problems. Barriers which get in the way of optimal performance, and influence the success of people and organizations.
A process of data collection and analysis to determine the success of learners on a specific task as a result of a training program.
Performance Evaluation Tools
Competency tests that allow the trainer to profile the student’s proficiency and identify weak areas so that training can be efficiently planned for the areas of most critical need.
The difference between desired and actual performance.
A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance improvement gaps, planning for future improvements in human performance, designing and developing cost-effective and ethically-justifiable interventions to close performance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial and nonfinancial results.
The actions that can be objectively observed and measured to determine if a task performer has performed the task to the prescribed standard.
A statement of the conditions, learner’s behavior (action), and standard. A criterion for prescribing the desired learner performance. This is a generic term and may be either a criterion objective or an enabling objective.
Technologies designed to enhance human performance and capabilities in the workplace. Also referred to as human performance technology, it is a systematic process of integrating practices from a vast breadth of fields such as instructional technology, organizational development, motivation, feedback, human factors, and employee selection.
The extent to which the test or expert opinion predicts how well students will actually perform on the job.
A method for analyzing tasks that lend themselves to flowcharting.
How and when to apply the facts learned.
A task for which a set of procedures has been published to produce the desired results. The procedures may be either a single fixed array (linear) or a set of alternatives on the contingencies encountered (branching).
A planned series of actions that advances a procedure from one stage of completion to another. A process always has an input and an output.
A chart that represents the sequence of steps or tasks needed to complete an operation. It serves as a basis for examining and possibly improving the way the operation is carried out.
Ability to perform a specific behavior (e.g., task, learning objective) to the established performance standard in order to demonstrate mastery of the behavior.
A word or signal that initiates or guides behavior; a cue.
Student performance of a simulated procedure under controlled circumstances. The student is prompted, guided through the procedure, provided necessary remediation, given explanations, and help is provided. It usually consists of video or graphic still frames.
Involves physical movement and coordination. The Taxonomies major categories in order of ascending difficulty are:
- Imitation: Observes skill and tries to repeat it.
- Manipulation: Performs skill according to instruction rather than observation.
- Precision: Reproduces a skill with accuracy, proportion and exactness. Usually performed independent of original source.
- Articulation: Combines one or more skills in sequence with harmony and consistency.
- Naturalization: Completes one or more skills with ease and becomes automatic.
A portion of the target population in which there is a high degree of probability that it contains at least some or all of the characteristics (educational level, background, intelligence quotients, etc.) of the infinite target population. The selection of the sampling is based on proven random sampling techniques (each sample selected is based on pure chance).
Yielding comparable results each time. In examinations, reliability is consistency; the same result is achieved on successive trials.
Any behavior that results from a stimulus or stimuli. In instruction, it designates a wide variety of behavior which may involve a single word, selection among alternatives (multiple choice), the solution of a complex problem, the manipulation of buttons or keys, etc.
Learning initiated and directed by the learner. Either for leisure learning or as a result of being informed that we may need additional knowledge for a job, or school. More and more training departments are developing courses that employees go through at their own pace. The term is used by some organizations now to include computer-based, web-based and multimedia training.
A document containing a series of lessons arranged in discrete steps with self-test questions that allow the instructor to monitor the students’ progress.
Any representation or imitation of reality. An instructional strategy used to teach problem solving, procedures, or operations by immersing learners in situations resembling reality. The learners actions can be analyzed, feedback about specific errors provided, and performance can be scored. They provide safe environments for users to practice real-world skills. They can be especially important in situations where real errors would be too dangerous or too expensive.
General capacities to perform a set of tasks developed through the acquisition of experience and/or training which require more than just knowing about the subject.
Skill Retention Model
A model which provides a numerical score for an individual task used in predicting retention on that task. Of value for determining sustainment training requirements.
An ability acquired for the performance of a task that may be used in the performance of a different task.
Skills needed to perform jobs where job requirements are defined in terms of expected outcomes, but the process(es) to achieve the outcomes may vary widely. Usually, an area of performance that does not have a definite beginning and end (i.e., counseling, supervising, and managing).
Describes the criterion or standards of performance which must be attained. An established norm against which measurements are compared.
Anything that provokes behavior.
A series of pictures which support the action and content that will be contained in an audiovisual sequence.
Requires acquisition of declarative and procedural knowledge, which is then internalized as a mental model.
The complete set of relationships between parts of a learning program as displayed in a course map or learning plan.
Student Controlled Instruction
An instructional environment in which the student can choose from a variety of instructional options for achievement of the terminal objectives. Students can vary their rate of learning, the media used, and other such learning factors. Also called “learner controlled instruction”.
Subject Matter Expert (SME)
A person who can perform a job or a selected group of tasks to standards. Her experience and knowledge of the job designates her as a technical expert. She must know what is critical to the performance of the task and what is nice-to-know. She must have recent job experience, otherwise, her knowledge of the task may be outdated by new procedures or equipment.
The total collection of a population that is scheduled to enter a given instructional program.
The smallest essential part of a job. A unit of work activity that is a logical and necessary action in the performance of a job.
Involves the systematic process of identifying specific tasks to be trained; and a detailed analysis of each of those tasks. Task analysis information can be used as the foundation for: developing instructional objectives, identifying and selecting appropriate instructional strategies, sequencing instructional content, identifying and selecting appropriate instructional media, and designing performance evaluation tools.
The behavior which the learner is to demonstrate after the learning experience.
Terminal Learning Objective
Prescription of the conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performance for the training setting. A learning objective at the highest level of learning (SKA) appropriate to the human performance requirements a student will accomplish when successfully completing instruction.
A device or technique used to measure the performance, skill level, or knowledge of a learner on a specific subject matter. It usually involves quantification of results– a number that represents an ability or characteristic of the person being tested.
The degree to which a test/test item gives consistent results each time it is used.
An outline of the topics to be included in the instructor guide.
A person who directs the growth of learners by making them qualified or proficient in a skill or task. Uses coaching, instructing, and facilitating techniques to accomplish the learning objectives.
The systematic process of developing knowledge, skills, and attitudes for current or future jobs.
An item to enhance training. May include charts, slides, and schematics
A process of testing the effectiveness of instruction by administering the criterion test immediately after the instruction. Also, a process through which a course is administered and revised until learners effectively attain the base line objectives.
The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Although there are several types of validity and different classification schemes for describing validity there are two major types of validity that test developers must be concerned with, they are content-related and criterion-related validity.
Web-Based Instruction (WBI)
Web-based Instruction is delivered over public or private computer networks and displayed by a Web browser. WBI is available in many formats and several terms are linked to it; on-line courseware, distance education on-line, etc. WBI is not downloaded CBT, but rather on-demand training stored in a server and accessed across a network. WBI can be updated very rapidly, and access to the training controlled by the training provider.
A handout that contains procedures and exercises designed to assist the learner in achieving the learning objectives.