Shirley J. Caruso, Ed.D.
Instructional design refers to the process of instructional program development from beginning to end. There are many instructional design models for use by different levels of instructional designers and for different instructional purposes. The instructional design process can be condensed into five phases, commonly known as ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate). Although these phases can sometimes be interrelated, they provide a guideline for developing effective instruction. The steps in the ADDIE instructional design process can provide an organized design approach for developing anddelivering face-to-face and online instruction.
The Analyze phase is the basis for all other phases of instructional design. This phase can be broken down into Performance Analysis, Instructional Analysis, Audience Analysis, and Delineate Objectives. The purpose of this phase is to define if training is the solution, define traiing content, goals, and objectives, identify learning outcomes, and determine instructional methods, materials, and media that will appeal to all learning styles.
The objective of this phase is to assess if a discrepancy exists between “actual performance” and ideal performance”, to break down the instructional goal into its compenent parts, to describe the target population’s specific characteristics and entry level skills, knowledge, and attitudes, and to design specific goals and objectives.
The Design phase entails using the outputs from the Analyze phase to plan a strategy for developing the instruction. The purpose of thes phase is to assess ideal performance and describe the content, methods, media, and practices of the training program for the trainer.
The objective of this phase is to use objectives to design written, verbal, simulation, and/or performance tests (pretest, embedded tests, post tests).
The Develop phase feeds on both the Analyze and Design phases. The purpose of this phase of is to produce the lesson plans and lesson materials. The objective of this phase is to collect learning materials for the training.
The Implementation phase refers to the actual delivery of the instruction, whether it’s classroom-based or computer-based. The purpose of this phase is the effective and efficient delivery of instruction. The objective of this phase is to promote the students’ understanding of material, support the students’ mastery of objectives, and ensure the students’ transfer of knowledge from the instructional setting to the job.
The Evaluate phase measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the instruction and should occur throughout the entire instructional design process.
Formative Evaluation is ongoing during and between phases. The purpose is to improve the instruction before the final version is implemented. The objective of formative evaluation is to improve training by removing all the imperfections. Formative Evaluation should be triangulated and include one-on-one evaluation by a content expert, evaluation by members of the target audience or another instructional designer, and evaluation after a field of study.
Summative Evaluation occurs after the final version of instruction is implemented. It objective is to improve the program for continued use once it has been implement.
Levels of Evaluation
Levels of Evaluation according to Kirkpatrick’s Model include Reaction (learners’ feelings, opinions and perspectives), Learning (measures achievement of learning objectives), Behavior (behavior change measured at intervals), and Impact (determines effects of learning on the organization).
The ADDIE model is a systematic instructional design model consisting of five phases: (1) Analyze, (2) Design, (3) Develop, (4) Implement, and (5) Evaluate.