School of human learning which believes in the need to identify current learning prior to constructing new meaning. Knowledge is seen as a mental construct that is built on and added to. Learners create an image of what the world is like and how it operates and they adapt and transform their understanding of new experiences in light of what they already ‘know’. This theory of learning has consequences for teaching and learning strategies. It means that trainers must recognize how a learner already sees the world, and how that learner believes it to operate. New information presented to the learner will be modified by what the learner already knows and believes. By starting ‘where the learner is at�, that is, engaging prior knowledge with present learning, the trainer assists the students to build on her understanding of the world and its workings.